World Peace unattainable?
World War 2 still raging and already Cold War against communism was on. Capitalism won this war 1991. Satisfied, we called this victory End of History. Now new Cold War has started against Putin's Russia, risking nuclear holocaust. Why this madness?
World peace unattainable?
Fernando García Izquierdo
The Cold War.
Some writers and journalists have attibuted the coining of the expression ‘the cold war’ to Sir Winston Churchill, when he spent a short holiday in Fulton, Missouri (1946), at the invitation of his friend Harry Truman, who had come to occupy about that time the post of President of the United States of America, whereas the former had lost his own job as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Churchill uttered then and there a famous short speech, in which he did use the term ‘Iron Curtain’ and implied that East and West were worlds apart. But about the expression ‘Cold War’, I am not so sure. The reality of a cold war (if not the name) goes back earlier in the decade, and up to the end of the twentieth century.
Nobody, I think, knows exactly who invented the term, which is, in any case, a very inadequate expression, however you look at it. For to call ‘cold’ such long irreconciliable antagonism is not only a misnomer but an offence to the victims that fell in it. Remember that the Korean War went on for several years, and General MacArthur was ready to use the atom bomb. While in Vietnam General Westmoreland called the dead ‘collateral victims’, dismissing them, because there were so many!
And now they are at it again.
For over fifty years, then, though most nations in Europe had endured great suffering during the second world war, a sly new conflict was imposed upon mankind right to the very end of the century. This Conflict was, as everyone knows, caused by ‘the resistance of capitalism to change’, on the one hand, and ‘the struggle by communism for survival’, on the other. Too bad!
The world came thus to be divided into two antagonistic parts, I repeat, Two Forces. World Peace was becoming impossible.
The years went by, and one day Gorbachev, Yeltsin and the others saw to it that there should be a change. Cold Peace! The proffered change was not only accepted, but in the end it was imposed by the West, which set all the terms for the change, etc. And as a result, no communism any more!
But now, in this twenty-first century, the same ugly sneaky conflict has cropped up again. And we don’t understand why. Now there is no communism, no marxist virus. What makes our capitalist-imperialists seek to revive what should be viewed as a new conflict?
The two parties, irreconciliable enemies.
One of the two parts or forces has been called these last fifty years, and it is a very beautiful name, ‘the Free World’. All the wealthiest chunks of the earth are embodied in it: The United States, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein and other rich advanced countries of Europe and of the World. Many of them then were imperial colonialists.
The other part (no longer representing any Force) is at present frittering away. A quarter of a century ago, it had a name: the ‘Soviet or Communist Block’, with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics at the helm, plus Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia. It is now all gone! The end of History!
As for the one country that was initially (once long ago) the enemy of peace and civilisation, and now is ‘full champion of the Free World’, it had just been defeated: Germany in 1945 (the epoch we are just now talking about.) And I’ll just mention that there was occupation for a while by the three then allied powers, which divided its territory into zones, along with France. Nearly the same happened with Austria, which had been swallowed by the Third Reich some five years earlier. Japan, however, was disposed of by the Americans. And Italy also was a case apart. All this is now history.
Be careful, remember the Versailles Treaty.
For a few months after the war (I remember this particularly), the great worry of our politicians and wise men had been not to treat the defeated powers too severely. They got together, Brits and Yanks, to study the subject very carefully: Which way Japan? Which way Germany? Austria, etc. We must work hard to help them recover. And it is a wonderful idea. No revolutions. Look at the mess Greece is in.
General Marshall of the United States invented a method to make sure Germany became rich again. Watch, communism is coming. Very soon Germany was called West Germany. The rest of Germany was called a satellite of the Soviet Union, with the others. And Greece still battling.
As concerns the other nations of the planet, nothing. They were collectively named the Third World, and had never had a great say in politics or international affairs. Sources of raw materials for the rich countries, that is what they served for. They had always done so.
In the meantime the Free World went on progressing. That is true. I saw it with my own eyes. Besides, the newly invented North Athlantic Treaty Organisation would be there to disinfect nations from ‘el virus marxista’.
The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, etc. would see to it (I’m talking of the Marxian Virus) that the right system of government would be implanted in the ‘naturally retrograde countries’, if they passed from the system of colonies to that of ex-colonies, nominally members of the United Nations Organisation and subsidiary portions of the free world.
From Cold War to Cold War, number one, number two.
However, the important thing now, in this article, is to explain philosophically what is that concept which I call ‘La Guerra Fría en Marcha’, marching and warring, developing the original idea and building, as Churchill suggested, an Iron Curtain, a new one, built on the ruins of the Berlin Wall, a thousand miles east.
With the original wall (the one that crossed by chance for the first time in 1977) the communist world was encircled, and in the west, for years and then decades we repeated the same tale, the same lie everywhere: Tenemos que defender toda Europa del virus marxista.
And not only Europe, straightaway Korea, then Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Malaya, Kenya, Salvador, Panama, Chile, etc., etc. Then, one day, infinitely small Cuba, delicious peaceful musical country on the pretext of America Magna being threatened by the Perla de las Antillas, catapúm!!!
Cold War my foot! Awful Gringos! Unendingly attacking the most peaceful people in the world… and risking God only knows what… And so until one day we might have all perished in a nuclear holocaust.
Never mind, our god protected us. We were lucky. Khruschev solved the ‘Cuban crisis’. We are still alive.
Another question now, since ‘the famous Cold War ended in 1991’, with the end of communism, what makes the capitalists start a cold peace against Putin this time?
Now about The Fall of the Wall.
We all got to know about it. Peace had been definitely proclaimed in 1991.
Before the Fall of the Wall, there was ‘the enemy’, communism. Therefore peace had been unattainable all along the line. Now all was luminous and bright, all turned out for the best. Even the Soviet President, a certain Gorbachev, had said no to the prolongation of the Cold War. Peace. It was done.
Celebrations everywhere. Knock down big stones. Sell the pieces as souvenirs. Folklore! Wessies and the Ossies as the rest of the freeworlders on earth, all to Berlin. ‘Wir sind eine Leute’!
Capitalism has proved to be good for the whole world, Bamako and Tanzania, London and Paris. Perpetual progress and growth, even the Russians and the Ukrainians will now see to it that everyone becomes rich.
This between 1991 and the end of the century. And then, suddenly and unexpectedly, something must have gone wrong. The promises were not fulfilled, animosity reigned afresh… and a new equally dangerous Cold War has begun.
Let us explain the First Cold War.
The date when the first cold war started, I reckon, is around the summer of 1944. Before that year, from 1942 to1943 men and women in Europe and on the planet were one way or another at war, fighting. Fascists and antifascists. Some obeyed Hitler and Mussolini, some Churchill and Roosevelt. But they were made from the same material. There was even a momentary consideration of an alliance against communism.
At the beginning of 1943, the Soviet Army inflicted a severe defeat on fascism. Over two hundred German divisions were destroyed in Stalingrad, and the Red Army then advanced into central Europe, victory upon victory. Stalin was a good ally.
Yet, as I have intimated, a cold war (against the Soviet Union) was started even in 1944, there is documentary evidence of this.
Antagonism between East and West.
At the end of the war, two different social systems were confronting one another.
Let me make some comments, at this stage, about the problems the Soviets were facing, the tasks they had undertaken upto this time in order to proceed with the rapid transformation of their country, transformation already initiated by Lenin after the end of the civil war in 1924. The immediate building of a heavy industry, the transformation of an agriculture that had been feudal for centuries past, the modernisation of an administration which had been based on paternalism and the power of life and death exercised by the aristocracy… without forgetting the development of art and culture under communism. You may criticise what you like and no doubt things said will be true; but those were the promises of the bolshevik revolution, which so much hope had awakened in the minds and hearts of the common people. The task was immense, the country needed peace (after 1924) and not to be voluntarily isolated (as has been Cuba,) by the advanced western powers. All that the communists wanted, pleaded: let us work, let us show you. No, the contrary happened.
The revolution nearly failed at the outset, thanks to the wickedness of the English aristocracy and other rich elements of reactionary Europe. The triumph (and peace) was only assured in 1924, with the defeat of the so-called Russian White Guards, the counter-revolutionaries.
Whereupon, in just two decades, a most backward country was transformed (without any help from abroad) into one with a powerful industry and a fairly successful agriculture, considering: one can criticise collectivisation, but the truth is that to rave about ‘the land being distributed farm by farm to individual peasants’ is nothing but utopia. The peasantry in Imperial Russia had lived in conditions of slavery. A ‘small peasant’ with a tiny farm would not have known how to proceed. There were no ‘small properties’ in Russia. The Princes, dukes, counts and so on were immensely big landowners who owned large extensions of land, whole mountains and forests.
Collaboration during the Hot War.
We now know, therefore, that from the very beginning of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Rich and Powerful of Europe tried to cause it to fail, and perhaps this animosity came from more ancient times. Not for nothing had Marx and Engels written that a spectre was haunting the Rich, and that said spectre was Communism.
Nothing reflects so well, in my opinion, the fear of communism on the part of the wealthy British aristocracy than the life and adventures of an unfortunate German called Rudolf Hess (1894-1987.)
Hess flew to Britain for an interview in May 1941. He was carrying a personal message from the Führer. A big man and a great sportsman, he parachuted over the Highlands at night, on a deserted piece of land, the property which a grand duke possessed in Scotland. Lord Hamilton was commissioned in a most secret mission. Hitler could be a help, instead of an enemy, in that he could turn his heavy-armoured divisions east. Even among the royals there were Hitlerites!
It would be idle for me to speculate about what could have happened. All I know, in any case, is that the general secretary of the Nazi Party, and a favourite of the Führer, never returned from Scotland for the meeting of the High Command. He only reappeared at the time of the Nürnberg Trials, in 1945, where he was condemned to be shot (penalty commuted.) His residence for all his life thereafter was the fortified castle of Spandau, East Berlin. The western allies (Nato) spent lots of time and energy trying to get him out of jail. But the Russians said ‘Niet!’ and in his jail the unfortunate man died.
Had he lived just a few more years, we would have seen him free and celebrating on the ruins of the famous Berlin Wall with Americans and all the Authorities of the expanded Bundesrepublik.
Back to the Cold War, main subject of this article.
The first time I heard the expression ‘Guerra Fría’, I was in one of the dependencies of the United States embassy in Paseo de la Castellana, the main thoroughfare of the Spanish capital, in 1948 where I had just begun my law studies. The place was a wonderful set of buildings, richly endowed with all kinds of facilities, innovation and curious ornaments. Very comfortable, too.
Spain was miserably poor at the time, and we young people, students most of us, had never even heard of such things as air-conditioning, large television screens and such devices as water fountains for drinking as much cold water as desired. It all gave us an idea of the ‘American way-of-life’.
There was a library, too, with wonderful books and colour-magazines, and though most of the writing was in English, we could nevertheless contemplate pictures of beautiful elegant women in ‘Life’ and other magazines. That was what we most loved!
There was also a big cinema, where films were shown, dubbed in Spanish. What didn’t we learn through those short films?
Stalin was a tyrant who had murdered twenty million of his subjects and only thought of torturing his victims. We were shown short films about the Soviet dictator, being acclaimed by the multitudes. All were forced to do so, if they didn’t want to be sent to Siberia at any moment. Many people were sent to psychiatric asylums. We saw Russians on their knees, the system leading to that. ‘Cult of Personality.’ And about the crimes committed by Stalin, the ‘Purges of the Thirties’ spared no one. Everyone he feared (or simply did not like) was recalled from wherever he or she was working, and shot. Stalin was a very jealous man, and always feared that someone might betray communism, specially if America offered them asylum. That is why the Russians in America said ‘I Chose Freedom’ when they defected. Then American intelligence men showed them how to proceed. A mainstream publisher was found.
In fact, the Soviet Union was like that: or communism destroyed intellect and art or Russia was an immense jail where people were in chains all the time or brainwashed. People were starving, except the cadres of the communist party. The collective farms were another name for concentration camps. It was because Stalin and his communist party, out of wickedness and ignorance, imposed forced collectivisation that agriculture all over the country was in such a mess. It was the same with those ‘quinquennial plans’ for rapid industrialisation, which only brought utter ruin in the economy, and much suffering for the workers.
And what was absolutely intolerable was that the Soviet Union wanted in fact ‘industrialisation in order to make war.’ Stalin was a warmonger, who wanted to destroy the American Way of life. The communists wanted to make weapons of mass destruction, and build ‘the atom bomb’ out of jealousy and because they wanted to bomb New York, Paris, London and Madrid.
And, indeed, we could see in those films unending military parades in Moscow and other Russian cities, big tanks, gigantic guns and much more. This, the speaker went on in Spanish, ‘sufficiently bears out the argument that Stalin is an assasssin’. We went to the film: row after row of immense weapons of war; long and solid trucks, too, and trailers, carrying large rockets pointing to heaven, etc. The communists were getting ready to invade our lands, specially West Germany, and then France, Spain, Portugal and all Europe in fact. There was nothing to stop them, in a week they could reach down to the Atlantic coast, if we did not look out.
But on the contrary, life in the United States was idyllic. Those cute little towns in the Mid-West, for instance. Beautiful individual homes for every family. Those adorable teenage girls, nipping colourful roses in neat big gardens; and otherwiser tidying the lovely properties. Who could ever embrace one of them girls (we thought)? To think that in Russia there was only ugliness!
We were often approached by officials of the embassy for different reasons. They asked me, one evening, whether I wouldn’t like to go to study in the States with a scholarship. I did apply to go to Columbia university. The very evening when I was registered, I was bold enough to ask the American diplomat about the Spansh civil war, for I believed America loved Freedom. We had seen something about Abraham Lincoln.
And the diplomat told me that Stalin had clapped into jail all the volunteer pilots who had fought in Spain in ’37 and ’38. That was what Communism did. Some Spaniards thought that Franco had conducted an unjust war. But it was Stalin who had withrawn his forces from Spain, thus letting the present government win the war.
In 1953 I left Spain, but not with a scholarship to study in Columbia University. I didn’t speak English then. I moved to London. That same year Churchill won the Nobel Prize in literature. I read a lot about him then (again Prime Minister, as from 1951) and among the things I read there were several long tirades on anticommunism: this is one of his famous pieces. ‘No one has been a more persistent opponent of communism than I have been for the last twenty-five years.’ Which comes to say that up to the moment of writing that, Sir Winston had been a rabid anticommunist since 1928. He continued fighting communism until his death, in 1965.
What happened in 1943?
When the German legions were about to land on the beaches of Kent and Sussex, in one of his most melodramatic moments, Churchill sent on the air his famous speech, and galvanised the nation to fight to the end.
Great Britain was in danger. Germany was attacking. He asked his people to be united and fight back. In consideration of which he only promised ‘Blood, Sweat and Tears.’
Whereupon, the English and other nationalities on those islands which had not yet been conquered by Germany (for the the Channel Islands had been conquered before) fell to revere their Champion. The United Kingdom feared Germany.
Nineteen forty-three would be a turning point in the war and in European history. And some important politicians in the Kingdom suddenly learned then that salvation could come precisely from the eastern front, the Red Army.
The United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union at last became allied in the fight against nazism-fascism. Temporarily.
Documentary evidence concerning the cold war.
The political structure of the world necessarily changed in January 1943. A most terrible battle was fought for Stalingrad. Hitler had again been hesitating. But his industry and his army needed oil and other raw materials. The Wehrmacht had to cross the Volga. Over two hundred armoured divisions, the best and most experienced troops were poured into the frey. German troops found there their cemetery. The German High Command, all those who hadn’t been slaughtered were taken prisoners. Communism had won. After much sacrifice and suffering. A million people died. It was terrible, at all human levels.
Looking deeply into the subject, I have taken the decision of limiting myself, in this matter, to the study of four sets of documents (the transcripts of four sets of Conferences held between 1943 and 1945. Namely: The Tehran (Iran) Conferences, from November 28 to December 1, 1943; the Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, America) Conferences, from July to July 27, 1944; The Yalta (Crimea) Conferences, from February 4 to February 11, 1945, and the Potsdam (in defeated Germany, near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945.
The Tehran Conferences.
Tergiversation was no longer posible. Britain and America knew what they owed to the Russians in 1943. The Wehrmacht had been defeated in Stalingrad. The Red Army was advancing on all fronts. Towards the West!
At the Tehran convention there were only three parties: the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Three delegations, led respectively by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. There were of course many other delegates: State Secretary, Foreign Secretary, Foreign Minister, other ministers, military representatives, etc.
One of the first acts was to solemnly agree that ‘These conferences and their concrete decisions are vital to the formation of an anti-nazi coalition, the co-ordination of military efforts and the mobilisation of all the peoples for the defeat of nazism and fascism.’ Pure, palpable evidence! but it goes to show the mistrust then existing between the two blocks, East and West: nearly four years after the commencement of the war.
Roosevelt started to speak, saying: ‘As the youngest head of government present here I should like to take the liberty of speaking first.’
It was agreed that he would preside the meeting (he presided thereafter at all the sittings.) ‘We are gathered,’ he went on, ‘for the purpose of winning the war as soon as possible. Our three nations, which united in the course of the present war, will strengthen their ties and will create the prerequisites for the close co-operation of future generations.’
Then it was Churchill who spoke and said: ‘This is the greatest concentration of world forces that ever existed in the history of mankind. I pray that we may worthy of this remarkable opportunity granted to us by God, the opportunity of serving mankind.’
Stalin, in turn said that ‘we are pampered by history. She has given us possession of very big forces and very great opportunities to use within the framework of our co-operation, all the power and authority which our peoples have vested on us.’ And later on: ‘After we beat back the German offensive’ (he’s referring to the Battle of Stalingrad), ‘it was relatively easy for us to go to the offensive.’ And he goes on in great detail with all the moves, advancing to defeat the Finnish units, allied to the Germans, and the defeat of the Hungarian nazis, and the Bulgarian, and so on. He also spoke of a delay in western Ukraine. ‘The defeated army (Stalin said) is trying to hit back, recapturing Kiev.’ It would be impossible for me to copy, in this article, all the details about the advance of the Red Army, mentioned by the Soviet leader.
The British leader spoke next, and he went in extenso about what was to be done. ‘We have since agreed with the United States,’ he said, ‘to attack Germany.’ And the important thing in the long speech that followed revealed that plans would begin to be drawn to start an attack in France. But there were other ideas added: ‘How can we make Turkey enter the war?’ he asked. Churchill’s suggestion was that Turkey (an ally of the West) ‘should appear in Bulgaria and Thracia’ (Rumania.) ‘All this,’ he went on, ‘are questions in which our Russian friends, naturally, have their own views.’
It has to be remembered that around the South Mediterranean the British had been waging war against Germans and Italians. Taking his troops to Europe (Churchill had been hoping) might be useful. He suggested that a landing on the Peloponnese (Greece) might be a good idea.
The greatest part of the discussions in the Tehran Conferences, which lasted three days and a few hours, it seems to me, was about the landing of Western troops, on the one hand, and the advancement overland by the Red Army. Churchill gave a last touch to his idea, when he said, off the cuff that he thought that ‘we might undertake diversionary acts in Yugoslavia, and also make Turkey join the war.’
The Bretton Woods Conferences.
This was a treaty of an entirely different nature. The Conferences, which took place in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in an extraordinarily large and comfortable hotel in a summer resort on the American Atlantic coast, lasted from July 1 to July 27, 1944. All the Gotha of capitalism were there, financiers, professors, politicians, the lot. As an anecdote I shall mention that Lord John Maynard Keynes was one of them. I singularise him because to him we freeworlders owe the prolongation of Capitalism’s existence for over half a century. He was not so stupid as the bandits that rule us today: I don’t know if the reader has heard the story of the ‘The Donkey and the Sardine’. A most stupid miserly peasant (in Galicia, I think), who fed his donkey on sardines, had the idea that if he subtracted every day one sardine from the donkey’s diet, the poor animal would get used to eating less, and he (the peasant) would thereby become richer. Until one day, he had subtracted one sardine too many… and his animal died. Lord Keynes was not so silly, and made sure (in the forties and fifties) that the workers earned real money, on the Strength of Smith’s and Ricardo’s theory that Work makes the Wealth of Nations.
That was just a pause. Let us go back to the Bretton Woods Conferences. Forty-four countries were officially represented. Needless to say, the wealthiest colonial nations of the world. Some with great extensions of colonies and protectorates.
The Soviet Union, of course, was ‘persona non grata’, though a Russian delegate, named Stepanov, was seen in the corridors, and probably talked to some of the delegates.
(By then the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were already coming into existance.)
The reader may feel curious, in consequence, about the real meaning of the long set of international conferences taking place in that summer resort in 1944. From what I studied in the fifties and the rather quick reading of a few documents which came to my hands quite recently, I have got the following impression about the Conferences. The solemn reunion quickly turned into a Sacred Mass in Anticommunism. Outwardly, of course, there was much discussion about banking and finance. A common (world) was an absolute necessity for our transnational entrepreneurs. And the bank was peremptorily formed. But right from the beginning, the Norwegian delegate protested, in that he proved that the members of the bank had collaborated with Hitler during the war which (I emphasise this) was not yet over. The case became so serious that the American President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was at that time already terminally ill, had to intervene. In a word, the ‘bankers’ were discarded. And eventually the institution, thus purified, was constituted. For me the fact that during these conferences the American currency, the dollar was consecrated as the universal measure of exchange and value is primordial. This consecration is the main cause of the great Crisis in which the Free World is submerged today.
The Yalta Conferences, Soviet Union.
The same three delegations led by the same three heads of government. The war is all but over. The Red Army has liberated all eastern and central Europe from nazism, but there are still (in Germany) some points of resistence.
Everywhere in Europe there have been national liberation movements manned mainly by communist combatants.
Just on the side, I’d like to mention that the exiled Spanish-Republicans constituted in France one of the best groups of resistant fighters against fascism.
Roosevelt is now a very sick man, but still presiding all the sessions. The first conference takes place on Frebuary 4, 1945. Stalin now appears as quite superior, in his own country, freely recognising his past errors: proud of his army and proud of himself. Churchill is loaded with his own obsessions.
The forces of the western allies had landed and are progressing in Italy. The landing in Normandy (France) has also been a success. Churchill propounds the idea that the West should quickly enter Germany to help the Red Army. Could we not consider (he says) embarking part of our (western) troops on the east coast of Italy and land in Yugoslavia, then proceed north to Berlin, to help the Red Army?
Roosevelt, as president, stated he had not envisaged sending troops from Italy, but was ready to discuss the subject. But first of all ‘he wished to express his gratitude for the hospitality accorded to him.’
Wherepon there was a detailed study of the situation in all the countries in eastern Europe, recently liberated by the Red Army. What would be the composition of the different governments?
Stalin, quite decisively, reminded Churchill that Poland was a neighbour of the Soviet Union. It had to be remembered that throughout history Poland had been a corridor for enemy troops whenever enemies decided to invade Russia. They invaded Poland and transformed her into territory for attacking Russia.
Churchill changed the subject, and said that they three had to be very careful, as the Three Great Powers, not to give the smaller countries the impression that they wanted to dominate the World.
‘Who was contemplating such domination?’ he asked. ‘Was the United States? No, it was not thinking of that,’ he concluded with a smile.
The transcript of the session shows that Churchill then adds, in as many words: ‘No, it was not thinking of that.’ And there is a bracket, in the transcript, as follows: (the president laughed and made an eloquent gesture.)
‘Were the British?’ Churchill insisted. ‘No, once again,’ he answers his own question. And we learn that ‘Churchill laughed and made an eloquent gesture.’
Potsdam Conferences (in defeated Germany.)
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt had died, and Vice-president Harry Truman became automatically the President of the United States of America. To him landed the task of presiding the last set of conferences between the triumphant world leaders. Sir Winston Churchill represented the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Joseph Vissarionovich Dzugashvili Stalin represented once more the Soviet Union. These were long conferences.
Scarcely three months after the end of the most terrible war ever to devastate the earth and particularly Europe, the little town near Berlin (which had been destroyed by air bombing, artillery, etc. was full of other famous personages. Eden was there, and so was Attlee, as well as Eisenhower and dozens of military representatives.
The three allied powers, instrumental in the winning of the war, had now to plan the immediate postwar and a happy prosperous future. Japan had not yet been defeated, but it would be soon, for which Truman would send brave American aviators who would drop some atom bombs on the main island.
What was to be done now? Europe was devastated, all of it, one way or another.
Churchill was the first to speak, at the first sitting, July 17, 1945. ‘Who is to be chairman at our Conference?’ he asked, and Stalin answered, ‘I propose President Truman of the United States.’
There were discussions, naturally, about how to tackle the problems of the reconstruction of Europe, and what was to be done about setting up governments in eastern and other now-headless nations. What to do with all those countries where governments had been allied to the Nazi Third Reich, and what to do with Italy in particular.
Hitler and his nazi camarilla had committed suicide, and those that remained were in jail awaiting judgement. There would be later on the Nürnberg Trials, but there was, of course, no talk about this at Potsman.
Truman started by saying that ‘the experience of the Versailles Conference, after the First World War, showed that a peace conference can have very many flaws.
In case the reader is not acquainted with the result of the peace treaty after the First World War, I’ll point out that, during the twenties and early thirties of the last century, we had an exhausted Germany which did not recover, and this led the Germans to freely choose fascism in the early thirties. Now we had to make every effort to ensure that defeated Germany would quickly recover and become a power in European politics again.
The idea was the same with defeated Italy, but in the Peninsula and particularly Sicily there was to be a more concerted effort to help the Italians to become civilised again. (In brackets, I shall say that, immediately after the war, there was a massacre of as many Italian communists as organised banditry could manage: and they did manage, with the help of American central intelligence personages.)
Coming back to Potsdam, Churchill proposed things about Poland, his old obsession. And now he led all the talks on the subject. He thought that since the gross of the Polish army had escaped from German oppression at the beginning of the war, and had landed in Dover, England should be the allied country which should state what was to be done in the matter.
Stalin, as in previous conferences, indicated that the question of Poland was primordial for the Soviet Union. Poland had often been in history (he said) utlised as a corridor by the forces that desired to destroy Russia; whereas Churchill insisted that if there was already a Polish Government set up in London, a provisional government, but with an army and generals that had been active in the conduct of the war, why did the Soviets want to create a Polish government. It was for the Poles in Poland to create the government, was the reply.
At this Churchill became furious. It happened that the general of the Polish volunteer army had told his officers that if they returned to their country, they would all be sent to Siberia, and the Polish general who had thus spoken had been fired as a consequence of this, because Churchill wanted the Polish officers to return to their country and assume gioverrnment.. ‘Anders told his troops in Italy,’ he spluttered out, ‘that if they returned to Poland, they would be sent to Siberia.’ Whereas it was Britain’s plan, precisely, that Poles in exile should return at once to Warsaw to constitute the Polish Government.
And so country by country in the east. It was good that they all had been liberated by the Red Army, but the important thing was to have well-organised free elections now.
It is of course understood that I could not now write a very long article about all those things, and I don’t know where the reader could get copies of all these documents, but perhaps these speeches can be found on Internet.
The discussions went on unendingly about Poland and other countries liberated by the Red Army. And about Germany herself. ‘The experience of the Versailles Conference,’ Churchill pointed out straight away, cannot be repeated. Germany now has to be treated without ‘the very many flaws’ committed at the end of the previous World War. Germany has to be helped to become strong once more. And Truman insisted that the Three Permanent Members (the United Nations had been formed) should be five, with France and China added. China then had the fascist government of Generalissimo Chang-Kai-Chek.
Personally, I cannot resist writing somewhat in extenso about Spain, a country about which there were heated discussions between Stalin and Churchill.
‘It is also necessary to examine the regime in Spain,’ Churchill raised the subject and Stalin replied: ‘We Russians consider that the present Franco regime in Spain was imposed on the Spanish people by Germany and Italy. It is fraught with great danger for the freedom-loving United Nations. We think it would be good to create conditions for the Spanish people to establish a regime of their own.’
A simple question which required a simple answer. The war of Spain is recognised by all impartial historians as the Prologue of the Second World War. It was in the interest of all retrograde forces in Europe to dismiss the ‘conflict’ (as they said) as something apart. I have studied the matter and I lived, as a child, during the War of Spain. These are some of the facts: The Rich in Spain were keeping the People in serfdom. The Spanish People (by a combination of circumstances into which I shall not enter), for the first time in its History, having by pure chance this opportunity, elected a democratic regime. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany invaded the Peninsula to help the Generals who had already betrayed the Republican Government. The People were crushed in 1939 and Fascism was installed for morre than forty years. As for Spain and the war (in Europe) Franco, the dictator, opened the country to Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, even after 1939. Spain sent troops to fight in the Second World War, although only to fight against the communists (as Churchill pointed out) in the east of Europe.
The reader cannot imagine (unless she or he has read the transcript) to what extreme of tergiversating the British Prime Minister went in the relevant Potsdam sittings.
‘This produces a number of secondary questions,’ he said, ‘connected with Polish Government in London.’ And in the third sitting he sinks deep in the matter. ‘The next question deals with Spain,’ Eden had pointed out, and Churchill insisted: ‘The British Governmant have a feeling of hatred for Franco and his Government… All I said is that there is more to Spanish politics than anti-Franco cartoons…’
I am really sorry I could not possibly copy literally the transcript of the third sitting, because (had it not been that the forty-year fascist dictatorship had been a tragedy, I would have been laughing all the time, getting deep into the details): he was a funny fellow.
‘When Franco sent me a letter, saying that he, I and certain other Western countries were against the threat of the Soviet Union, I sent him a very cool reply.’ And just a couple of lines underneath: ‘Where I see some difficulty in adopting the plan proposed by Stalin is in Point One, which speaks of the rupture of all relations with the Franco Government, which is a government of Spain. I think that the Spaniards are proud and rather sensitive, such step by its very nature could have the effect of uniting the Spaniards around Franco.’ That is to say that Churchill and his British people (Attlee was around) thought that the People of Spain were pleased with a fascist dictatorship.
Truman was of the same opinion, and Stalin asked in dispair: ‘Is that to say that there will be no change in Spain?’ And we hear Churchill emphasise: ‘We have long had trade relations with Spain, they supply us with oranges, wines and certain other products… I should not like this trade to be jeopardised.’
I’m howling with laughter over my keyboard. Sir Winston Churchill, of the old English aristocracy, wants to have his daily glass of Sherry. Didn’t he know that the English those days made the most exquisite Sherry (not Jerez), namely Bristol Cream?
Stalin insisted and the discussions about the Fascist Regime went on and on, another and another sitting, until finally Truman closed the subject (and condemned the Spanish People to ignominy) as the president of the Conference. ‘I think we’d better pass on to the next question,’ he said, and return to the question of Spain later.’
All right ‘later on’. But there was ‘no return to the question of Spain’ and the poor Spanish people, the majority, were abandoned. Until the mid-seventies there was a Fascist Dictatorship. And the new government prolongued the dictatorship, calling in Democracia Orgánica. For the capitalist-imperialists the important thing was that Spain joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation quickly.
On to Cold War Two.
There have been two cold wars, or if you prefer two stages of the same one. We have been referring so far mainly to the first one. It ended about a quarter of a century ago with the fall of the Berlin Wall. We all celebrated the end of Communism. And the end of the Cold War followed naturally. The wisemen spoke of the End of History.
Coincidentally, some American intelligence specialists were moving about in important Russian cities and they soon became masters the situation. Other specialists in evildoing (freeworlders and communists) now disbanded the Soviet Union and put in its stead whatever they chose. The Americans were experts in the job. Besides they had a great deal of collaborators among the Russians and other Soviet citizens, Latvians and Georgians, for instance, escapees with residence in Sydney, Chicago and elsewhere.
Beginning with the biggest traitor of all, the Kremlin was a gallery of horrible beings. I’m referring to none other than the President (still for a few days.) And a thousand communist renegades followed him, crawling at the feet of the freeworlders. They all ‘Chose Freedom.’
Then they all rushed to sneak into banks, factories, oil-fields etc., searching for Capital! To accumulate, accumulate, accumulate… and see who could become the greatest ‘Speedy González in the art of entering places and filling their own pockets.
In a way the greatest robbery History has known. No kidding. Almost all these brigands are now in the most important resorts in the world, Las Vegas, Marbella, Nice,to name but a few.
How marvellous to live in the Free World! There are bandits all over the world, of course, but when one sees these pigs once knows at once that they belong in London, New York, Frankfort, etc.
As for Russia, organised elections followed, exactly as we do in the rest of our dear Free World, the same as when we freely chose Sarko, Hollande, Cameron, Bush and his son, Obama and all the rest.
A disgraceful drunkard was installed in ‘power’ one day when he happened to be, just by chance, a semi-rational animal (or object.) He was officially made, with the Americans in the background, the President of all Russias. He did not even know if he was a czar or a communist cadre. Then he got hold of the bottle and lost forevermore conscience of everything.
It is said that, after flying to America to pay respects to his bosses, the plane stopped in Ireland for a courtesy visit, and the drunken President began shouting: ‘America! America! Thanks!’ and was too inebriated to leave his plane.
These are facts. American intelligence officers had the situation quite in hand. They were everywhere (as Mr. Snowden has shown recently.) The second great power on earth became, in a few days or weeks, hell on earth. A nation of traitors for the most part. And Russia became a beautiful example. A nation of so-called plutocrats every Sunday going to church, and the hungry people lying on the ground, pleased to be able to admire the new aristocracy, to see the splendour of the new aristocrats, the riff-raff begging at the entrance of the orthodox churches, like in the Dark Ages.
Luckily, out of the Chaos.
Yeltsin was so thoroughly drunk, as a rule, that when the worst happened and another religion got hold of one of the southern nations of the federation, Chechnya, the whole of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in Europe, right down to Estonia and Kaliningrad to the Urals and beyond caught fright. Within another few months, a sacerdotal cast of fanatic elements of the worst ilk, would have begun transforming the newly nation of freeworlders into a race of slaves.
What was to be done?
All had been looking so fine! A pack of hyenas were so comforably installed in power, the Russia of Yeltstin. Someone named Vladimir Putin as Prime Minister and maybe this new leader did what he had to do, saved Chechnya and saved Russia and all the former Soviet states and the former Satellites as well. Even Europe in fact was rescued from becoming a dominion of the ayatolas or worse.
Can anybody imagine, if he had failed to do so, what would have become of Catholic Poland, poor thing, with the ayatolas in command, and all her numerous chaples, churches and cathedrals turning into mosques overnight, ay, ay, ay?
Of course, a problem had to crop up with our freeworld leaders. Somehow they didn’t like Putin after all. And once more, another Nato meeting, and the question, ‘what is to be done?’ again. They found a solution. Let’s encircle Russia. Weapons of mass destruction in Estonia, etc., right down to Georgia.
Although now the Russian President and his empoverished country are once more really suffering, we all move about chanting. ‘Delenda est Putin, down with Putin!
Can some paid psycophant explain to me, not lying for once, what is the reason for this? Have we forgotten that Russia possesses nuclear weapons galore, and Putin has shown he will not give way to threats by our imperialists or even by all-powerful financiers. Are we, then, heading towards a Third World War, menacing this time the entire planet?
What do the capitalist-imperialists want bases in the Baltic States for? or in Catholic Poland, or Bulgaria, Rumania and so on? Are they dying with anxiety not having yet installed themselves in Kiev, with weapons of mass destruction manned by the Maidan riff-raff? … and in Sebastopol, who wants to offer ‘facilities’ for the American Fleets to go there and be sure they use the bomb the first, as they did in Japan in1945?
How would the Americans feel if tomorrow there is a ring of Chinese bases over the Canadian border, and all along the Río Grande, and on the Caribbean islands (it might happen), would they cry, ay! ay! my backyard?